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An abdominal MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan is an imaging test that uses powerful magnets and radio waves to create pictures of the inside of the belly area. It does not use radiation (x-rays).
Single MRI images are called slices. The images can be stored on a computer or printed on film. One exam produces dozens or sometimes hundreds of images.
Nuclear magnetic resonance - abdomen; NMR - abdomen; Magnetic resonance imaging - abdomen; MRI of the abdomen
You may be asked to wear a hospital gown or clothing without metal zippers or snaps (such as sweatpants and a t-shirt). Certain types of metal can cause blurry images.
You will lie on a narrow table. The table slides into a large tunnel-shaped scanner.
Some exams require a special dye (contrast). Most of the time, the dye is given before the test through a vein (IV) in your hand or forearm. The dye helps the radiologist see certain areas more clearly.
During the MRI, the person who operates the machine will watch you from another room. The test lasts about 30-60 minutes, but may take longer.
You may be asked not to eat or drink anything for 4 - 6 hours before the scan.
Tell your doctor if you are afraid of close spaces (have claustrophobia). You may be given a medicine to help you feel sleepy and less anxious, or your doctor may suggest an "open" MRI, in which the machine is not as close to the body.
Before the test, tell your health care provider if you have:
Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room with the MRI scanner:
An MRI exam causes no pain. You may get medicine to relax you if you have a problem lying still or are very nervous. Moving too much can blur MRI images and cause errors.
The table may be hard or cold, but you can ask for a blanket or pillow. The machine makes loud thumping and humming noises when turned on. You can wear ear plugs to help reduce the noise.
An intercom in the room allows you to speak to someone at any time. Some MRIs have televisions and special headphones to help you time pass.
There is no recovery time, unless you were given a medicine to relax. After an MRI scan, you can go back to your normal diet, activity, and medicines.
An abdominal MRI provides detailed pictures of the belly area from many views. It is often used to clarify findings from earlier x-rays or CT scans.
This test may be used to look at:
MRI can distinguish tumors from normal tissues. This can help the doctor know more about the tumor such as size, severity, and spread. This is called staging.
MRI is sometimes used to avoid the dangers of angiography, too much radiation exposure, and allergies from iodine.
An abnormal result may be due to:
Additional conditions under which the test may be performed:
MRI does not use ionizing radiation. No side effects from the magnetic fields and radio waves have been reported.
The most common type of contrast (dye) used is gadolinium. It is very safe. Allergic reactions rarely occur. However, gadolinium can be harmful to people with kidney problems who need dialysis. Tell your health care provider before the test if you have have kidney problems.
The strong magnetic fields created during an MRI can cause heart pacemakers and other implants not to work as well. The magnets can also cause a piece of metal inside your body to move or shift.
Kim DH, Pickhard PJ. Diagnostic imaging procedures in gastroenterology. In: Goldman L, Schafter AI, eds. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 135.
Wilkinson ID, Paley MNJ. Magnetic resonance imaging: basic principles. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, eds. Granger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging. 5th ed. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone;2008:chap 5.