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Catecholamines are chemicals made by nerve tissue (including the brain) and the adrenal gland.
The main types of catecholamines are dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. These chemicals break down into other components, which leave your body through your urine.
A urine test can be done to measure the level of catecholamines in your body. Separate urine tests may be done to measure related substances.
Catecholamines can also be measured with a blood test.
Dopamine-urine test; Epinephrine-urine test; Adrenalin-urine test; Urine metanephrine; Normetanephrine; Norepinephrine-urine test; Urine catecholamines; VMA; HVA; Metanephrine; Homovanillic acid (HVA)
For this test, you must urinate into a special bag or container every time you use the bathroom for 24-hour period.
For an infant:
Thoroughly wash the area around the urethra (the hole where urine flows out). Open a urine collection bag (a plastic bag with an adhesive paper on one end).
Check the infant often, and change the bag after the infant has urinated. Empty the urine from the bag into the container provided by your doctor.
Active babies can move the bag, causing the urine to go into the diaper. You may need extra collection bags.
When finished, label the container and return it as you have been told.
Stress and heavy exercise may affect the test results.
Some foods can increase catacholamines in your urine. You may need to avoid the follow foods for several days before the test:
Many medicines can interfere with test results.
The test involves only normal urination, and there is no discomfort.
The test is usually done to diagnose an adrenal gland tumor called pheochromocytoma. It may also be used to diagnose neuroblastoma. Urine catecholamine levels are increased in most persons with neuroblastoma.
The urine test for catecholamines may also be used to monitor those who are receiving treatment for these conditions.
All of the catecholamines are broken down into inactive substances that appear in the urine:
The following normal values are the amount of the substance found in the urine over a 24-hour period:
Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk to your doctor about the meaning of your specific test results.
The examples above show the common measurements for results for these tests. Some laboratories use different measurements or may test different specimens.
Elevated levels of urinary catecholamines may indicate:
The test may also be performed for:
There are no risks.
Several foods and drugs, as well as physical activity and stress, can affect the accuracy of this test.
Young WF. Adrenal medulla, catecholamines, and pheochromocytoma. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 235.