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This condition is not the same as hyperthermia that is due to medical emergencies such as heat stroke or infection.
Hyperthermia - malignant; Hyperpyrexia - malignant
Malignant hyperthermia is inherited. Only one parent has to carry the disease for a child to inherit the condition.
It may occur with muscle diseases such as multiminicore myopathy and central core disease (autosomal dominant).
Malignant hyperthermia is often discovered after a patient is given anesthesia during surgery.
There may be a family history of malignant hyperthermia or unexplained death during anesthesia.
The person may have a fast and often irregular heart rate.
Tests that may be done include:
During an episode of malignant hyperthermia, wrapping the patient in a cooling blanket can help reduce fever and the risk of serious complications. Drugs such as dantrolene, lidocaine, or a beta-blocker drug can help with heart rhythm problems.
To preserve kidney function during an episode, you must get fluids through a vein and by mouth, as well as certain medications.
Malignant Hyperthermia Association of the United States - www.mhaus.org
Repeated episodes or untreated episodes can cause kidney failure. Untreated episodes can be fatal.
Tell both the surgeon and anesthesiologist before having any surgery if:
If you or anyone in your family has malignant hyperthermia it is very important to tell your doctor, especially before having surgery with general anesthesia. Using certain medications can prevent the complications of malignant hyperthermia during surgery.
Avoid stimulant drugs such as cocaine, amphetamine (speed), and ecstasy. These drugs may cause problems similar to malignant hyperthermia in people who are prone to this condition.
Genetic counseling is recommended for anyone with a family history of myopathy, muscular dystrophy, or malignant hyperthermia.
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Dinarello CA, Porat R. Fever and hyperthermia. In: Fauci A, Kasper D, Longo DL, et al, eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 17th ed. [online version]. New York, NY: McGraw Hill;2008:chap 17.
Schmidt EW, Nichols CG. Heart-related illness. In: Wolfson AB, Hendey GW, Ling LJ, et al, eds. Harwood-Nuss' Clinical Practice of Emergency Medicine. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2009:chap 346.
Steele MT. Rhabdomyolysis. In: Wolfson AB, Hendey GW, Ling LJ, et al, eds. Harwood-Nuss' Clinical Practice of Emergency Medicine. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2009:chap 211.