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Nephrocalcinosis is a disorder in which there is too much calcium deposited in the kidneys. This condition is common in premature babies.
Any disorder that leads to high levels of calcium in the blood or urine may lead to nephrocalcinosis. In nephrocalcinosis, calcium deposits form in the kidney tissue itself. Most of the time, both kidneys are affected.
Nephrocalcinosis is related to, but not the same as, kidney stones (nephrolithiasis).
Conditions that can cause nephrocalcinosis include:
Other possible causes of nephrocalcinosis include:
There are generally no early symptoms of nephrocalcinosis beyond those of the condition causing the problem.
People who also have kidney stones may have:
Later symptoms related to nephrocalcinosis may be associated with chronic kidney failure.
Imaging tests can help diagnose this condition. Tests that may be done include:
Other tests that may be done to diagnose and determine the severity of associated disorders include:
The goal of treatment is to reduce symptoms and prevent more calcium from collecting in the kidneys.
Treatment will involve methods to reduce abnormal levels of calcium, phosphate, and oxalate in the blood and urine.
If you take medicine that causes calcium loss, your doctor will usually tell you to stop taking it. Never stop taking any medicine before talking to your doctor.
Other symptoms, included kidney stones, should be treated as appropriate.
What to expect depends on the complications and cause of the disorder.
Proper treatment may help prevent further deposits in the kidneys. However, there is usually no way to remove deposits that have already formed. Extensive deposits of calcium in the kidneys do NOT always mean severe damage to the kidneys.
Call your health care provider if you know you have a disorder that causes high levels of calcium in your blood and urine, or if you develop symptoms of nephrocalcinosis.
Prompt treatment of disorders that lead to nephrocalcinosis, including renal tubular acidosis, may help prevent it from developing.
Curhan GC. Nephrolithiasis. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 128.
Elder JS. Urinary lithiasis. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW III, et al., eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 541.